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对美国ASME成员等编写的《关于设计,生产,测量的几何尺寸和公差》进行逐一翻译与整

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发表于 2010-10-21 23:25:44 | 只看该作者 回帖奖励 |倒序浏览 |阅读模式
   鉴于国内对公差理论的研究和说明太过抽象,不便于理解和应用。我特此想借本栏目宝地,发布自己对此原著的翻译。争取每天发一部分。望各位给予批评与鼓励。让我能完成这个艰巨的任务。
经过深刻考虑后,我不得不做出决定放弃这本书的翻译。因为它违背了我刚开始做这件事的初衷。不过我会改为翻译由G.Henzold写的《关于设计,制造和检测的几何尺寸和公差》这本书(包括但不限于此书,随后还有ASME Y14.43以及网络上相关的一些比较经典的解析)。

对于本书的翻译要特别感谢谷歌,有道和欧华等翻译软件,我是站在巨人的肩膀上,才看到了一点阳光!


如果有可能我希望我后续能把这本书翻译完。从明天开始吧!

由于本人多年从事机械制造行业,对欧美图纸有比较深的了解,特此希望大家能把工作中遇到的关于图纸上尺寸公差方面的问题提出来,以便大家共同探讨学习。

非常感谢各位的协助。
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沙发
发表于 2010-10-22 08:04:49 | 只看该作者
现在网路上只有豆丁可在线阅读:
http://www.docin.com/p-49795507.html
本作者所有文章 未经允许 严禁转载
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板凳
发表于 2010-10-22 09:07:28 | 只看该作者
GOOD IDEA,HOPE US LEARN TOGETHER MORE BY THIS.
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地板
发表于 2010-10-22 15:04:03 | 只看该作者
主要是一些公差原则,及位置度公差,这些十分抽象。如果有具体的例子,或者动画,就易学多了。

http://www.cad888.org/topic_2854.html
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-10-22 19:56:55 | 只看该作者
引用第1楼wingman1985于2010-10-22 08:04发表的  :
现在网路上只有豆丁可在线阅读:
http://www.docin.com/p-49795507.html
谢谢,正好可以协助校对下。

同时理论的东西由于个人的知识结构不同,可能造成对同一句话的不同理解。这时就需要我们提出问题大家共同讨论,以期可以正确理解作者的意图。

我希望大家能在读到这些文章时,大家能不断提出问题。共同探讨,共同进步。如果能做到这些那么我的努力也就算没白费了。
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-10-22 20:09:30 | 只看该作者
正式开始了
第一部 历史经验教训
第一章 质量本质
1.1质量的意义
1.2质量的发展
1.3质量先驱者及其贡献
1.3.1W.Edwards Deming
1.3.2 Joseph Juran ............................................................................................................................... 1-3
1.3.3 Philip B. Crosby ........................................................................................................................... 1-4
1.3.4 Genichi Taguchi ........................................................................................................................... 1-5
1.4 The Six Sigma 通向质量之路.......................................................................................... 1-6
1.4.1 Six Sigma的历史........................................................................................................... 1-6
1.4.2 Six Sigma 成功案例 ....................................................................................................... 1-7
1.4.3 Six Sigma 基础......................................................................................................................... 1-7
1.5 美国波多里奇国家质量奖 ...................................................... 1-9
1.6 参考目录
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-10-22 21:07:46 | 只看该作者
Ron Randall 是一名独立的顾问,Six Sigma 协会的一名合伙人,擅长应用 Six Sigma 质量原理。自从20世纪80年代Ron已经开始在德州仪器防务系统和电子系统中应用统计过程控制和从实验原理到生产过程的设计 在德州仪器期间,他担当统计过程控制理事会的主席,获得Six Sigma冠军,Six Sigma黑带和作为一个技术协会的高级会员。他的毕业作品已经收录在田纳西大学和在Dr. W. Edwards
Deming指导下的纽约大学斯特恩学院SMU工程和统计研究中收录他的毕业作品。。。。。。。。(国外也搞这一套)一直到1.6都没有实际内容

前期的写作意图,我想作者想让读者明白写这些东西的人都是这个行业里具有影响力的人。以便使这本书更具有说服力。能引起更大的关注。
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-10-22 23:17:58 | 只看该作者
设计驱动的工程是基于工程设计师可以指定任何可以得到预定功能要求为前提。传统上,在发放图纸前设计工程师就会指定零件上的尺寸公差。这些公差值是基于过去的经验,最佳的猜测,预期的制造能力,或产品开发阶段的设计-测试-安装方法。在确定公差期间,通常的工程、生产、检验部门之间只有很少或没有任何沟通。该方法有时被称为“over-the-wall”的方法来设计,因为一旦图纸被发放, 不管尺寸公差值被指定。生产、制造、检验人员都必须顺从。这种方法的缺点,问题总是产品被生产或部分已经开始的时候,也是加工生产成本是最高的。它也促进了工程、制造及质量人员之间的争端。这些争议将会增加生产周期、工程变更、总成本。
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-10-23 14:52:22 | 只看该作者
2.1.2 Process Driven Design
A process driven design establishes the dimensional tolerances that are placed on a drawing based
entirely on the capability of the manufacturing process, not on the requirements of the fit and function
between mating parts. When the manufactured parts are inspected and meet the tolerance requirements
of the drawings, they are accepted as good parts. However, they may or may not assemble properly. This
condition occurs because the inspection process is only able to verify the tolerance specifications for the
manufacturing process rather than the requirement for design fit and function for mating parts. This
method is used in organizations where manufacturing “dictates” design requirements to engineering.
工艺驱动设计是指设置在图纸上的尺寸公差完全基于制造工艺能力,而不是部件间装配和功能的要求。只有当被检测的产品满足图纸的公差要求时,他们被作为好的产品而接受。然而,他们可能会很好地组装在一起,也可能不会。发生这种情况的原因是检验程序只能用于验证制造过程的公差要求,而不是装配部件间的功能和设计配合要求。这方法常常在制造“规定”工程设计要求的组织中使用。(经过指点已经好多了)
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-10-23 17:51:43 | 只看该作者
An inspection driven design derives dimensional tolerances from the expected measurement technique
and equipment that will be used to inspect the manufactured parts. Inspection driven design does not use
the functional limits as the assigned values for the tolerances that are placed on the drawing. The functional
limits of a dimensional tolerance are the limits that a feature has to be within for the part to
assemble and perform correctly.
One inspection driven design method assigns tolerances based on the measurement uncertainty of
the measurement system that will be used to inspect finished parts. When this method is used, the tolerance
values that are indicated on the drawing are derived by subtracting one-half of the measurement
uncertainty from each end of the functional limits. This smaller tolerance value then becomes the basis
for part acceptance or rejection.Inspection driven design can be effective when the designer
and metrologist work very closely together during the
development stage of the product. However, the system breaks
down when the designer has no knowledge of metrology, if
the proposed measurement technique is not known, or if the
measurements are not made as originally conceived.
2.1.3设计驱动的检测
设计驱动的检测源于预期测量技术的尺寸公差和用来检查生产零件的设备。对于图纸上的公差,设计驱动的检测不把功能极限作为指定的公差值。对于产品的装配和正常运行,尺寸公差的功能极限就是特征必须控制的那部分。设计驱动的检测方法是基于测量最终检测产品的设备系统的测量不确定性来分配公差的。当使用这种方法时,从每次功能极限末端减去这种不确定性的一半作为图纸上公差值。这种较小的公差值就变成了产品被接受或拒收的基础。在产品设计阶段,当设计者和计量者能密切协作,那么设计驱动的检测就可能非常有效。但是如果设计者并没有计量知识或者对假设的测量技术不了解,或者没有按照最初的设想进行测量,那么结果都会产生系统的崩溃。.
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-10-23 18:19:05 | 只看该作者
2.2 A Need for Change
The need to change from the traditional approaches to dimensioning
and tolerancing was not universally recognized in the
United States until the 1980s. Prior to that time, tolerances
were generally assigned as an afterthought of the build-testfix
product design process. The catalyst for change was that
American industry began to learn and practice some of the
techniques taught by Deming, Taguichi, Juran, and others
(see Chapter 1).
The 1980s also saw the introduction of the Six Sigma
Quality Method by a U.S. company (Motorola), adoption of
the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, and publication
of the ISO 9000 Quality Systems Standards. The entire
decade was filled with a renewed interest in a quality movement
that emphasized statistical techniques, teams, and management
commitment. These conditions provided the ideal
setting for the birth of “dimensional management.”
2.2改革的需要
在美国直到80年代,这种从传统过程到尺寸公差的改变才得到普遍的认可。在此之前,公差
一般被作为设计-测试-装配模式的事后产品设计过程。变革的催化剂是美国工业开始学习和实践中的一些
Deming, Taguichi, Juran, 和其他人所传授的技术。 20世纪80年代也看到了由一家美国公司(摩托罗拉)引进六西格马质量的方法,此方法收录在美国波多里奇国家质量奖,并在ISO 9000质量体系标准中出版。整个十年是充满了对质量运动的兴趣,强调统计技术,团队和管理承诺。这些条件为“尺寸管理”提供了理想的环境。
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-10-23 18:36:49 | 只看该作者
2.2.1 Dimensional Management
Dimensional management is a process by which the design,
fabrication, and inspection of a product are systematically defined
and monitored to meet predetermined dimensional quality
goals. It is an engineering process that is combined with a set of
tools that make it possible to understand and design for variation.
Its purpose is to improve first-time quality, performance,
service life, and associated costs. Dimensional management is
sometimes called dimensional control, dimensional variation management
or dimensional engineering.
2.2.1尺寸管理
尺寸管理是包括设计,制造,和系统地定义和监测产品以便达预期尺寸质量目标的测量过程。这是一个使人们能够便于理解的工具和对变化进行设计的综合工程方法。其目的是为了提高一线产品质量,性能,使用寿命,以及相关的成本。尺寸管理有时也被称为尺寸控制,尺寸变化管理或尺寸工程
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-10-23 18:49:12 | 只看该作者
2.2.2 Dimensional Management Systems
Inherent in the dimensional management process is the systematic
implementation of dimensional management tools. A
typical dimensional management system uses the following
tools (see Fig. 2-1):
• Simultaneous engineering teams
• Written goals and objectives
• Design for manufacturability and design for assembly
• Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing
• Key characteristics
• Statistical process control
• Variation measurement and reduction
• Variation simulation tolerance analysis
2.2.2尺寸管理系统
尺寸管理过程本质上就是是系统实施立体管理工具。一典型的尺寸管理系统使用下列工具(见图2-1。):
•同步工程团队
•纸面上的目的和目标
•可制造性设计和装配设计
•几何尺寸和公差
•关键特性
•统计过程控制
•测量和形变的变化
•模拟公差分析的变化
(最后两个不确定说的什么)
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-10-23 19:26:18 | 只看该作者
2.2.2.1 Simultaneous Engineering Teams
Simultaneous engineering teams are crucial to the success of any dimensional management system. They
are organized early in the design process and are retained from design concept to project completion.
Membership is typically composed of engineering design, manufacturing, quality personnel, and additional
members with specialized knowledge or experience. Many teams also include customer representatives.
Depending on the industry, they may be referred to as product development teams (PDT), integrated
product teams (IPT), integrated process and product development (IPPD) teams, and design build
teams (DBT).
The major purpose of a dimensional management team is to identify, document, and monitor the
dimensional management process for a specific product. They are also responsible for establishing specific
goals and objectives that define the amount of product dimensional variation that can be allowed for
proper part fit, function, and assembly based on customer requirements and are empowered to ensure that
these goals and objectives are accomplished. The overall role of any dimensional management team is to
do the following:
• Participate in the identification, documentation, implementation, and monitoring of dimensional goals
and objectives.
• Identify part candidates for design for manufacturability and assembly (DFMA).
• Establish key characteristics.
• Implement and monitor statistical process controls.
• Participate in variation simulation studies.
• Conduct variation measurement and reduction activities.
• Provide overall direction for dimensional management activities.
The most effective dimensional management teams are composed of individuals who have broad
experience in all aspects of design, manufacturing, and quality assurance. A design engineer willing and
able to understand and accept manufacturing and quality issues is a definite asset. A statistician with a
firm foundation in process control and a dimensional engineer specializing in geometric dimensioning
and tolerancing and variation simulation analysis add considerable strength to any dimensional management
team. All members should be knowledgeable, experienced, and willing to adjust to the new dimensional
management paradigm. Therefore, care should be taken in selecting members of a dimensional
management team because the ultimate success or failure of any project depends directly on the support
for the team and the individual team member’s commitment and leadership.
2.2.2.1同步工程团队
同步工程团队对任何尺寸管理系统的成功都是至关重要的。在设计过程很早时,就需建立。存在于从设计理念到项目的完成整个过程。成员通常是由工程设计,制造,质量人员,以及其他具有专门知识或经验的成员组成。许多团队还包括客户代表。根据不同的行业,他们可能是指产品的研发团队(PDT),完整的产品团队(IPT),完整的工艺和产品开发(IPPD)小组和设计构建团队(DBT)。管理团队的主要目的就是对特定产品的识别,记录和监控尺寸管理流程。他们也负责建立明确的目的和目标,对适当的配合,功能,并根据客户要求装配来确定产品的尺寸变化量,并有权确保这些目标和实现目标。对任何一个尺寸管理队伍的整体作用是做到以下几点:
•参与鉴定,记录,实施和尺寸目标和目的监测。
•选出为制造和装配能力(DFMA)设计的候选人。
•建立关键特性。
•执行和监督统计过程控制。
•参与变化模拟研究。
•指导变化的测量和形变活动。(不懂)
•为尺寸管理活动提供全方位指导。
最有效的尺寸管理团队是由在设计,制造和质量保证所有方面都拥有广泛的经验的个人组成。设计工程师愿意和能够理解和接受的制造和质量问题是一个有形资产。统计人员在过程控制坚实的基础以及一个在尺寸公差和变化模拟有专长的尺寸工程师会给任何尺寸管理团队增添无穷的力量。所有成员都应是知识渊博,经验丰富,并愿意适应新的尺寸管理模式。因此,在选择尺寸管理成员时应该小心,对于任何项目团队来说因为最终的成功或失败直接取决于支持对团队和个人的承诺和领导。
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-10-23 21:15:29 | 只看该作者
2.2.2.2书面的目标和目的
Using overall dimensional design criteria, a dimensional management team writes down the dimensional
goals and objectives for a specific product. Those writing the goals and objectives also consider the
capability of the manufacturing and measurement processes that will be used to produce and inspect the
finished product. In all cases, the goals and objectives are based on the customer requirements for fit,
function, and durability with quantifiable and measurable values.
In practice, dimensional management objectives are described in product data sheets. The purpose of
these data sheets is to establish interface requirements early so that any future engineering changes
related to the subject part are minimal. The data sheets typically include a drawing of the individual part or
subassembly that identifies interface datums, dimensions, tolerance requirements, key characteristics,
tooling locators, and the assembly sequence.
利用全尺寸设计准则,尺寸管理团队为具体产品写下尺寸目的和目标。这些书面的目标和目标还考虑了生产能力和用于制造和测量成品的测量过程。无论如何,这些目标和目的是建立基于客户对配合,功能和可量化及测量的耐用性。这些数据表的目的就是尽早地建立接口的要求,以便把与产品相关的任何未来的工程变更降到最低。数据表通常包括了部分组件绘图或子总成。这些子总成包括标识接口基准,尺寸,公差要求,关键特性,工装定位和装配顺序。
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-10-24 18:04:51 | 只看该作者
2.2.2.3 Design for Manufacturability (DFM) and Design for Assembly (DFA)
A design for manufacturability (DFM) program attempts to provide compatibility between the definition
of the product and the proposed manufacturing process. The overall objective is for the manufacturing
capabilities and process to achieve the design intent. This objective is not easy to accomplish and must
be guided by an overall strategy. One such strategy that has been developed by Motorola Inc. involves
six fundamental steps summarized below in the context of dimensional management team activities.
Step 1: Identify the key characteristics.
Step 2: Identify the product elements that influence the key characteristics defined in Step 1.
Step 3: Define the process elements that influence the key characteristics defined in Step 2.
Step 4: Establish maximum tolerances for each product and process element defined in Steps 2 and 3.
Step 5: Determine the actual capability of the elements presented in Steps 2 and 3.
Step 6: Assure Cp ³ 2; Cpk ³ 1.5. See Chapters 8, 10, and 11 for more discussion on Cp and Cpk.
Design for assembly (DFA) is a method that focuses on simplifying an assembly. A major objective of
DFA is to reduce the number of individual parts in the assembly and to eliminate as many fasteners as
possible. The results of applying DFA are that there are fewer parts to design, plan, fabricate, tool,
inventory, and control. DFA will also lower cost and weight, and improve quality.
Some critical questions that are asked during a DFA study are as follows:
• Do the parts move relative to each other?
• Do the parts need to be made from different material?
• Do the parts need to be removable?
If the answer to all of these questions is no, then combining the parts should be considered. The
general guidelines for conducting a DFA study should include a decision to:
• Minimize the overall number of parts.
• Eliminate adjustments and reorientation.
• Design parts that are easy to insert and align.
• Design the assembly process in a layered fashion.
• Reduce the number of fasteners.
• Attempt to use a common fastener and fastener system.
• Avoid expensive fastener operations.
• Improve part handling.
• Simplify service and packaging.
2.2.2.3可制造性设计(DFM)和可装配性(DFA)设计
可制造性设计(DFM)方案尝试在产品定义和假设的制造工艺之间提供兼容性。制造能力和过程的总体目标是实现设计意图。这一目标必须由总体战略引导才能实现,而且一个这样的战略已经由摩托罗拉公司开发。涉及包含在尺寸管理团队活动的范围内的如下六个基本步骤中:
第1步:识别关键特性。
第2步:识别产品影响步骤1中定义的关键特性的因素。
第3步:定义影响在步骤2中定义的关键特性的元素。
第4步:为每个步骤2和3中的产品和流程元素建立最大公差。
第5步:确定步骤2和3中每个元素实际能力。
第6步:确保茂³ 2; Cpk的³ 1.5。更多关于Cp和Cpk的讨论见章节8,10,和11。
面向装配的设计(DFA的)是一种关注简化装配的方法。DFA的一个主要目标是减少装配中部件的数量和消除尽可能多的紧固件。应用DFA的结果是,在设计,规划,制造,工具,库存和控制中存在更少的零件。 DFA也将降低成本和重量,并提高质量。
一些是在DFA研究中的关键问题如下:
•零件相对移动吗?
•零件需要不同的材料制成吗?
•零件需要拆卸吗?
如果对所有这些问题的答案是否定的,那么就应该考虑整合这些零件。指导一个DFA研究的一般准则应包括决定:
•减少了零件的总数。
•消除了调整和重新定位。
•设计制造的零部件,很容易插入和调整。
•设计容易插入和对齐的零件。
•以一层模式设计装配工序。
•减少紧固件的数量。
•尝试使用一个相同的紧固件和紧固件系统。
•避免昂贵的紧固件处理。
•提高零件搬运。
•简化服务和包装。
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-10-24 20:08:14 | 只看该作者
2.2.2.4 Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T)
Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing is an international engineering drawing system that offers a
practical method for specifying 3-D design dimensions and tolerances on an engineering drawing. Based
on a universally accepted graphic language, as published in national and international standards, it
improves communication, product design, and quality. Therefore, geometric dimensioning and tolerancing
is accepted as the language of dimensional management and must be understood by all members of the
dimensional management team. Some of the advantages of using GD&T on engineering drawings and
product data sheets are that it:
• Removes ambiguity by applying universally accepted symbols and syntax.
• Uses datums and datum systems to define dimensional requirements with respect to part interfaces.
• Specifies dimensions and related tolerances based on functional relationships.
• Expresses dimensional tolerance requirements using methods that decrease tolerance accumulation.
• Provides information that can be used to control tooling and assembly interfaces.
See Chapters 3 and 5 for more discussion of the advantages of GD&T.
2.2.2.4 几何尺寸和公差
几何尺寸和公差是一个国际工程制图系统,它在工程图纸上为描述3 - D设计尺寸和公差提供了一个实用的方法。作为一种普遍接受的图形语言,它在国家和国际标准中发表,它提高了沟通,产品设计和质量。因此,作为公认的尺寸管理语言,几何尺寸和公差必须被所有尺寸管理团队的成员所理解。在工程图纸上和产品数据表上使用GD&T的一些优势为:
•通过应用普遍接受的符号和语法,消除了歧义。
•使用的基准和基准系统,以确定与零件接口有关的尺寸要求。
•基于功能相关关系指定尺寸和公差。
•通过使用减少误差积累使用方法来表达尺寸公差要求。
•提供可以被用来控制加工和装配接口的信息。
关于对GD&T优势的讨论,见第3,和5章。
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-10-25 21:41:14 | 只看该作者
这本书从第二章第6页开始因为前期都是简单的介绍。(这本书的作者语言水平不怎么高啊,总共411页)
2 ________________________
Principles for Tolerancing
It is impossible to manufacture workpieces without deviations from the nominal shape.
Workpieces always have deviations of size, form, orientation and location.
When these deviations are too large the usability of the workpiece for its purpose will
be impaired. When during manufacturing attempts are made to keep these deviations as
small as possible, in order to avoid the impairment of usability, in general the production
is too expensive and the product is hard to sell.
In general, competition forces the use of all possibilities for economic production,
including possibilities, arising from current developments. Therefore, it is necessary that
the drawing tolerances define the workpiece completely, i.e. each property (size, form,
orientation and location) must be toleranced. Only then is the manufacturer able to
choose the most economic production method, e.g. depending on the number of pieces
to be produced and on the production methods available.
Incompletely toleranced drawings result in:
● questions for the production-planning engineer;
● questions for the manufacturing engineer;
● questions for the inspection engineer;
● reworking;
● defects, damages.
Only completely toleranced drawings enable the production of workpieces to be as precise
as necessary and as economic as possible. This is necessary for competition.
When all tolerances necessary to define the workpiece completely are indicated individually
the drawing becomes overloaded with indications and is hard to read. Therefore
general tolerances should be applied.
General tolerances shall be equal to or larger than the customary workshop accuracy.
The customary workshop accuracy is equal to those tolerances the workshop does not
exceed with normal effort using normal workshop machinery. Larger tolerances bring
no gain in manufacturing economy. The normal workshop accuracy depends on the workshop
machinery that produces the largest deviations (disregarding exceptions which are
to be dealt with in certain cases). The customary workshop accuracy is in general the
same within one field of industry. For example, the customary workshop accuracy for
material removal in the machine-building industry corresponds to the general tolerances
ISO 2768-mH.
When there is no appropriate ISO Standard or National Standard available a company
standard should be elaborated.
The general tolerances shall be applied by an indication in or near the title box of the
drawing.
Tolerances that must be smaller have to be indicated individually, see 16.
2 ________________________
公差原则
我们不可能制造相对名义尺寸没有偏差的工件。工件总会有大小,形状,方向和位置偏差。当这些偏差过大,工件的可用性目的就会受到损害。为在生产过程中避免损害可用性,这就需要为了使这些偏差尽可能小而做出努力。一般来说如果生产过于昂贵,那么产品就难以销售。为了经济生产竞争迫使产生出所有可能性,包括来源于目前的开发。因此,图纸公差完整地定义工件就是非常必要的,即每个属性(大小,形状,方向和位置)必须给予公差规定。只有这样制造商才能选择最经济的生产方式,例如根据件数要生产和生产方法可用。不完整的公差图纸导致:
●生产规划工程师面对的问题;
●制造工程师面对的问题;
●检验工程师面对的问题;
●返工;
●缺陷,损害。
只有具有完正公差的图纸使工件的生产尽可能的精确和尽可能的经济。这是竞争的必要条件。
当所有用来完整定义工件的公差都分别标示出来时,图纸将会变得过于庞大,并且难以阅读。这时就应当采用一般公差。一般公差应等于或大于传统车间精度。传统车间的的精度就是在正常工作条件下,使用正常的机械所取得的公差。较大的公差带没有给制造业带来经济收益。正常的车间精度取决于能产生的最大偏机械(除特定某些情况外)。在一个行业或领域传统车间精度通常都是相同的。例如,在机械工业,传统车间去除材料的一般精度应对应国际标准组织2768 –mH。当没有合适的ISO标准或国家标准可供采用时,应制定份公司标准。一般公差规定应当放在标示或标题框的附近。那些必要的小公差必须要单独注明,见16章。
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发表于 2010-10-26 08:31:46 | 只看该作者
引用第16楼alex-li于2010-10-24 20:08发表的  :
2.2.2.4 Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T)
Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing is an international engineering drawing system that offers a
practical method for specifying 3-D design dimensions and tolerances on an engineering drawing. Based
on a universally accepted graphic language, as published in national and international standards, it
improves communication, product design, and quality. Therefore, geometric dimensioning and tolerancing
.......
维管理==》尺寸管理
完正公差===》完整公差
本作者所有文章 未经允许 严禁转载
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-10-26 22:35:26 | 只看该作者
首先感谢坛主的指导!
3.2 Definitions of geometrical tolerances
In order to specify geometrical tolerances, the workpiece is considered to be composed
of features (geometrical elements), such as planes, cylinders, cones, spheres, tori, etc.
Form tolerance is the permitted maximum value of the form deviation (see 18.6 and
18.7.1 to 18.7.7). According to ISO 1101, there are defined form tolerance zones within
which all points of the feature must be contained. Within this zone, the feature may have
any form, if not otherwise specified. The tolerance value defines the width of this zone
(Fig. 1.3).
Form tolerances limit the deviations of a feature from its geometrical ideal line or surface
form. Special cases of line forms with special symbols are straightness and roundness
(circularity) (Fig. 3.1). Special cases of surface forms with special symbols are
flatness (planarity) and cylindricity (Fig. 3.2).
Orientation tolerance is the permitted maximum value of the orientation deviation
(see 18.6 and 18.7.8). According to ISO 1101, there are defined orientation tolerance
zones within which all points of the feature must be contained. The orientation tolerance
zone is in the geometrical ideal orientation with respect to the datum(s). The tolerance
value defines the width of this zone (Fig. 1.3).
Orientation tolerances limit the deviations of a feature from its geometrical ideal orientation
with respect to the datum(s). Special cases of orientation with special symbols
are parallelism (0°) and perpendicularity (90°) (Fig. 3.3).
The orientation tolerance also limits the form deviation of the toleranced feature
(exceptions according to ASME Y14.5, see 21.1.6), but not of the datum feature(s). If
necessary, a form tolerance of the datum feature(s) must be specified.
Location tolerance is twice the permitted maximum value of the location deviation
(see 18.6 and 18.7.9). According to ISO 1101, there are defined location tolerance zones
within which all points of the feature must be contained. The location tolerance zone is
in the geometrical ideal orientation and location with respect to the datum(s). The tolerance
value defines the width of this zone (Fig. 1.3).
Location tolerances limit the deviations of a feature from its geometrical ideal location
(orientation and distance) with respect to the datum(s). Special cases of location
with special symbols are coaxiality (when toleranced feature and datum feature are
cylindrical) and symmetry (when at least one of the features concerned is prismatic)
where the nominal distance between the axis or median plane of the toleranced feature
and the axis or median plane of the datum feature is zero (Fig. 3.4).
The location tolerance also limits the orientation deviation and the form deviation of
the toleranced feature (plane surface or axis or median face) (exceptions according to
ASME Y14.5, see 21.1.5), but not the form deviation of the datum feature(s). If necessary,
a form tolerance for the datum feature(s) must be specified.
3.2几何公差的定义
为了标明几何公差,工件被认为是由特征(几何元素)组成,如平面,圆柱,圆锥,球体,花键等。
形状公差是允许形式的最大偏差值(见18.6和18.7.1至18.7.7)。根据ISO 1101,特征上的所有点必须控制规定的形状公差带内。如果没有特别说明在此区域,该特征是可以有任何形状的。公差值定义了这个区域的宽度(图1.3)。形状公差限制它相对理想的几何线条或表面形状的偏差。线轮廓特殊的符号是直线度和圆度(圆)(图3.1)。面形状的特殊符号是平面度(平面)和圆柱度(图3.2)。定向公差是允许的最大值方向偏差(见18.6和18.7.8)。根据ISO 1101,所有的特征点必须控制定义的定向公差区域内。定向公差区域处在相对基准(s)的理想方向内。公差值定义此区域(图1.3)的宽度。定向公差限制了特征相对基准的几何理想的方向的偏离。定向的特殊符号是平行度(0 °)和垂直度(90 °)(图3.3)。定向公差也限制了公差定义特征的形状偏差(例外包含在ASME Y14.5,见21.1.6),而不是基准特征(们)。如果必要时,必须指定基准特征(们)的形状公差。位置公差是位置允许偏差最大价值的两倍(见18.6和18.7.9)。根据ISO 1101,所有的特征点必须控制在定义的定向公差区域内。定位公差区域处在相对基准(s)的几何理想方向和位置内。此公差值定义此区域(图1.3)的宽度。位置公差限制几何特征相对基准(s)在几何理想的位置偏差(方向和距离)。位置公差具有的特殊符号是同轴度(当公差的功能和数据功能圆柱类型时)和对称度(当至少有关特征之一是方形时)。当其中限制特征的轴线或中性面之间的名义距离和轴或基准特征的中性面为零时(图3.4)。位置公差也限制了特征的方向偏差和位置偏差(平面或轴或中面)(根据例外
ASME Y14.5,见21.1.5),但不是基准功能(s)的形状偏差。如有必要,必须为基准功能(s)指定形状公差。(有点没搞明白后几句话的意思)
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-10-27 22:28:39 | 只看该作者
Run-out tolerances are partly orientation tolerances (axial circular run-out tolerance,axial total run-out tolerance) and partly location tolerances (radial circular runout
tolerance, radial total run-out tolerance). However, according to ISO 1101, they are considered as separate tolerances with separate symbols, because of their special measuring method.Typical drawing indications and the relevant geometrical tolerance zones of tolerances of form, orientation, location and run-out are shown in Figs 3.1 to 3.11.Which geometrical tolerances are applicable for which type of feature is shown in Table 3.3. The table also shows the possible combinations of toleranced feature and
datum feature.The possible tolerance zones, their shapes, their orientations and locations, their widths and their lengths are described in 3.3.
The possibilities of specifying datums are described in 3.4.The definitions of axes and median faces are dealt with in 3.5.Special rules for screw threads, gears and splines are described in 3.6.The differences between angularity tolerances according to ISO 1101 and angular dimension tolerances according to ISO 8015 are described in 3.7.
Form tolerances of lines are shown in Fig. 3.1.Line profile tolerances (Fig. 3.1 top). The nominal (theoretical, geometrical ideal) line
is defined by theoretical exact dimensions (TEDs). In each section, parallel to the plane of projection in which the indication is shown, the profile line shall be contained
between two equidistant lines enveloping circles of diameter 0.02, the centres of which are located on a line having the nominal (theoretical, geometrical ideal) form (see also 4).Roundness (circularity) tolerance (Fig. 3.1 centre). In each cross-section of the conical surface the profile (circumference) shall be contained between two coplanar concentric circles with a radial distance of 0.02 (see also Fig. 3.18).Straightness tolerance (Fig. 3.1 bottom). In each section, parallel to the plane of projection
in which the indication is shown, the profile shall be contained between two parallel straight lines 0.03 apart (see also 3.3.1 and Fig. 3.19).
For further examples of form tolerances of lines see 4, 9, 11, 12, 20.1.2, 20.2, 20.3,20.8 and 20.9.Form tolerances of surfaces are shown in Fig. 3.2.
Surface profile tolerances (Fig. 3.2 top). The nominal (theoretical, geometrical ideal)surface is defined by theoretical exact dimensions (TEDs). The surface shall be contained between two equidistant surfaces enveloping spheres of diameter 0.03, the centres of which are located on a surface having the nominal (theoretical, geometrical
ideal) form (see also 4).Cylindricity tolerance (Fig. 3.2 centre). The surface shall be contained between two coaxial cylinders with a radial distance 0.05.
Flatness tolerance (Fig. 3.2 bottom). The surface shall be contained between two parallel planes 0.05 apart (see also 20.2).For tolerancing of cones see 5.
For further examples of form tolerances see 20,1.2, 20.3, 20.8 and 20.9.Orientation tolerances are shown in Fig. 3.3.
跳动公差的公差是部分定向公差(轴向跳动公差,轴向全跳动公差)和部分位置公差(径向圆跳动
宽容,径向全跳动公差)。但是,根据ISO 1101,因为他们专门的测量方法,他们是视为不同的公差,使用不同的符号。典型图纸说明和形状,方向,位置和跳动公差的相关几何公差公差带都显示在图3.1至3.11中。在表3.3中显示哪些特征类型适用哪类几何公差。该表还显示出标注公差的特征与基准特征的可能组合。可能的公差带,它们的形状,方向和位置,以及它们的长度和宽度也描绘在3.3表中。指定基准的可能性描述在表3.4中。表3.5则与轴和中性面的定义相关。螺纹,齿轮,花键的特别规定则描述在表3.6中。根据ISO 1101定义的倾斜度公差和符合ISO8015定义的角尺寸公差之间的差异描述在3.7中。如图3.1所示线的形状公差即线(图3.1顶)轮廓公差。名义(理论,几何理想)线由理论(TED’s)正确尺寸所定义。在平行于显示的投影平面上的每一截面中,线的轮廓必须处于两个相等,直径0.02的圈内,其中心位于具有名义(理论,几何理想)形状的线上(另见4)。圆度(圆)公差(图3.1中心)。在每个圆锥表面上的截面中,轮廓(圆周)应包含两个共面径向距离为0.02的同心圆之间(见图。3.18)。直线度公差(图3.1下):在每一截面中,平行于显示的投影平面,轮廓应处在两个平行相距0.03的直线间(亦见3.3.1和图。3.19)。对于线状公差的其它实例,见4,9,11,12,20.1.2,20.2,20.3,20.8和20.9。面状公差如图3.2所示。面(图3.2上)轮廓公差:名义(理论,几何理想)表面由理论(TED’s)的正确尺寸定义。面必须包含在两个相距为直径0.03球包络面内,其中心处于名义(理论,几何理想)形状上(见4)。圆柱度公差(图3.2中心):表面应处在两个径向距离为0.05的同轴柱面内。平面度公差(图3.2下):表面应处在两个平行距离为0.05的平面内(见20.2)。对于圆锥公差见5。对于形状公差的其它举例见20,1.2,20.3,20.8和20.9。定向公差见图 3.3。
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发表于 2010-10-28 14:39:25 | 只看该作者
Alex-li ,GO!!!
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发表于 2010-10-28 17:03:11 | 只看该作者
天啊,这位仁兄还真有毅力坚持下来。我手上有一份技术要求文件,也就10张A4纸,三个月了,还处理翻译草案当中。
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发表于 2010-10-28 18:26:25 | 只看该作者
有志者事竟成----加油;学习榜样
栾国臣
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-10-28 21:35:20 | 只看该作者
Angularity tolerance (Fig. 3.3 top). The actual axis shall be contained between two parallel planes 0.1 apart that are inclined at the theoretically exact angle 60° to the datum A.Perpendicularity tolerance (Fig. 3.3 centre). The surface shall be contained between two parallel planes 0.08 apart that are perpendicular to the datum A.
Parallelism tolerance (Fig. 3.3 bottom). The surface shall be contained between two
parallel planes 0.08 apart that are parallel to the datum A.For further examples of orientation tolerances see 3.3, 20.1.1 and 20.8.
Location tolerances are shown in Fig. 3.4.Positional tolerances (Fig. 3.4 top). The theoretical exact (nominal) position is defined
by the theoretical exact dimensions (TEDs) with respect to the datums A, B and C. The actual axis shall be contained within a cylinder of diameter 0.05, with an axis that coincides with the theoretical exact position.Coaxiality tolerance (Fig. 3.4 centre). The actual axis shall be contained within a
cylinder of diameter 0.03 coaxial with the datum axis A. When the features are practically two dimensional (thin sheet, engraving) the tolerance is also referred to as the
concentricity tolerance.Symmetry tolerance (Fig. 3.4 bottom).The actual median face shall be contained between two parallel planes 0.08 apart that are symmetrically disposed about the datummedian plane A.
倾斜度公差(图3.3上):实际轴线应处在两个相对基准A成60 °的理论倾斜角且相互平行相距0.1范围内。垂直度公差(图3.3中)。表面应处在两个垂直于基准A平行相距0.08内。平行度公差(图3.3下)。表面应包含两个平行与基准A且相距0.08相互平行平面范围内。对于定向公差更多实例见3.3,20.1.1和20.8。位置公差见图 3.4。位置公差(图3.4上)。理论正确(标称)位置通过相对于基准的A,B和C(TED’S)的理论正确尺寸定义。实际轴线应包含在一个直径为0.05圆柱体内,其轴线与理论正确位置重合。同轴度公差(图3.4中心)。实际轴线应包含在与基准轴A同轴直径0.03的圆柱内。实际上当特征是两维(薄板,雕刻)内的公差时也被称为同心度公差。同心tolerance.Symmetry宽容(图3.4下)。实际的中性面应控制在两个相距0.08且相对基准中性面A对称的平行平面之间。
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-10-28 22:37:46 | 只看该作者
For further examples of location tolerances see 3.3, 6, 7, 9, 11, 19 and 20.Radial run-out tolerances are shown in Fig. 3.5.Circular radial run-out (Fig. 3.5 top). In each plane perpendicular to the common datum axis A–B the profile (circumference) shall be contained between two circles concentric with the datum axis A–B and with a radial distance of 0.1.Total radial run-out tolerance (Fig. 3.5 bottom). The surface shall be contained between two cylinders coaxial with the datum axis A–B and with a radial distance of 0.1.During checking of the circular radial run-out deviation, the positions of the dial indicator are independent of each other. However, during checking of the total radial
run-out deviation, the positions of the dial indicator are along a guiding (straight) line parallel to the datum axis A–B (see 18.7.8.3).Therefore the straightness deviations and the parallelism deviations of the generator lines of the toleranced cylindrical surface are limited by the total radial run-out tolerance,but not by the circular radial run-out tolerance (Fig. 3.6).See also Fig. 20.59.Axial run-out tolerances are shown in Fig. 3.7.Fig. 3.5 Circular radial run-out tolerance, total radial run-out tolerance: drawing indications and tolerance zones
对于位置公差更多的事例见3.3,6,7,9,11,19和20.径向跳动公差见图 3.5.圆径向跳动(图3.5上):在垂直于共同的基准轴线A - B的每一个平面内,轮廓(周长)应该处于相对与基准轴A – B同心且径向相距0.1的两个圆圈之间。全跳动公差径向距离(图3.5底部)。表面应与两个相对基准轴A - B同轴且径向距离0.1的圆柱面内。.当检查径向跳动偏差时,百分表的位置是相互独立的。然而,在检查全跳动偏差时,百分表的位置平行与基准轴A – B的指导(直)线(见18.7.8.3)。因此,直线度偏差和偏差约束圆柱表面的提取线平行度偏差的也是受全跳动公差限制的,而不是由径向圆跳动公差(图3.6)。参见图。 20.59.轴向跳动公差见图。(第36页)
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-10-30 22:42:19 | 只看该作者
Circular axial run-out (Fig. 3.7 top). In each cylindrical section (measuring cylinder)coaxial with the datum axis A, the section line shall be contained between two circles 0.1 apart and perpendicular to the datum axis A.Total axial run-out tolerance (Fig. 3.7 bottom). The surface shall be contained
between two parallel planes 0.1 apart and perpendicular to the datum axis A.During checking of the circular axial run-out deviation, the positions of the dial indicator are independent of each other. However, during checking of the total axial run-out。deviation, the positions of the dial indicator are along a guiding (straight) line perpendicular to the datum axis A (see 18.7.8.3). Therefore the flatness deviations of the toleranced surface are limited by the total
axial run-out tolerance, but not by the circular axial run-out tolerance (Fig. 3.8).
轴向跳动(图3.7的顶部)。在每一个与基准轴A同轴的圆柱面内(测量圆柱),该截面线应包含和基准轴相距0.1两个圆圈之间。全轴向跳动公差(图3.7下)。表面必须处在与基准轴线A垂直的两个相距0.1的平行平面之间。在检查轴向跳动偏差时,百分表的位置是相互独立的。然而,在检查全轴向跳动时,百分表的位置是沿着垂直于基准轴线A的(直)引导线(见18.7.8.3)。因此,表面的平面度也是受全轴向跳动公差控制,而不是圆轴向跳动公差(图3.8)。
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发表于 2010-11-1 11:25:59 | 只看该作者
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发表于 2010-11-2 13:04:17 | 只看该作者
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-11-2 20:52:01 | 只看该作者
引用第28楼neallu于2010-11-02 13:04发表的  :
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