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对美国ASME成员等编写的《关于设计,生产,测量的几何尺寸和公差》进行逐一翻译与整

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 楼主| 发表于 2010-11-2 22:25:25 | 只看该作者
Circular run-out tolerance in any direction (Fig. 3.9 top). In each conical section (measuring cone) coaxial with the datum axis B and perpendicular to the nominal toleranced
surface (defining the measuring cone angle) the section line shall be contained between two circles 0.1 apart and perpendicular to the datum axis B.Total run-out tolerance in any direction (Fig. 3.9 bottom). The surface shall be contained between two cones coaxial with the datum axis B and with a radial distance of 0.1 (measured perpendicular to the nominal cone surfaces) (see also Fig. 5.4).During checking of the circular run-out deviation in any direction, the positions of the dial indicator are independent of each other. However, during checking of the total runout deviation in any direction, the positions of the dial indicator are along a guiding line (theoretical exact generator line of the toleranced future) parallel to its theoretical exact position with respect to the datum axis B.Therefore the deviations of the generator line of the toleranced feature are limited by the total run-out tolerance in any direction, but not by the circular run-out tolerance in any direction (3.10). Coaxiality tolerance and radial run-out tolerance are different. The coaxiality tolerance assesses the deviation of the axis from the datum axis, while the radial run-out tolerance assesses the deviation of the circumference line from a coaxial circle. The radial run-out deviation is composed of the coaxiality deviation and parts of the roundness deviation. For limiting unbalance, for example, the coaxiality tolerance is appropriate to the function rather than the radial run-out tolerance. Figure 3.11 shows an example where there is a radial run-out deviation, but practically no coaxiality deviation.
在任何方向上的径向跳动公差(图3.9上)。截面线应该包含在两个与基准轴B相垂直且相距0.1的同轴圆内。在每个与基准轴B同轴的且垂直于名义受限表面(定义测量锥角)的锥形截面内,截面线应处于两个垂直与基准轴线B且相距0.1的圆圈之间。在任何方向上的全跳动公差(图3.9下),受限面应包含在两个与基准轴B同轴且径向距离为0.1的锥形面内(测量应垂直于名义锥形表面)(见图5.4)。在检测任何方向上的径向偏差时,百分表的位置是相互独立的。然而,在检测任何方向上的全跳动偏差时,百分表的位置应该沿着引导线(受限特征的理论正确提取线),且平行与相对基准轴B的理论正确位置。因此,特征提取线的偏差受限于在任何方向的全跳动公差,而不是在任何方向的径向跳动(3.10)公差。同轴度公差和径向跳动公差是不同的。同轴度公差评估的是轴线相对于基准轴线的偏差,而径向跳动公差则评估的是圆周线相对于同轴圆的偏差。径向跳动偏差的由同轴度偏差和零件的圆度偏差构成。例如对于控制平衡性,同轴度公差比径向跳动公差更合适。图3.11显示的是径向跳动公差,而不是同轴度偏差。(第40页)
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32#
发表于 2010-11-3 20:45:20 | 只看该作者
楼主
英文部门不会是自己再打出来的吧?
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-11-4 21:53:24 | 只看该作者
首先回答楼上的问题:是我用软件把PDF中的文字提取出来的。谢谢关心!
Possibilities of geometrical tolerancing of features are listed in Table 3.3, which indicates the possible types of tolerancing depending on the type of feature.
The drawing indication “lines” may be omitted when the drawing already shows that only section lines can be applied (Figs 20.7 and 20.9). See also 20.2.
Further possibilities are positional tolerancing of the centre point of a sphere or positional tolerancing or coaxiality (concentricity, same symbol as coaxiality) tolerancing
of the centre point within a cross-section. These points may also be used as a datum.Limitation of deviations by geometrical tolerances of higher order is shown in
Fig. 1.3. Related geometrical tolerances (tolerances of orientation and location according to ISO 1101 and ASME Y14.5M) define zones within which all points of the toleranced feature have to be contained. Therefore related geometrical tolerances also limit certain form deviations. Locational tolerances also limit the orientational deviations and the form deviations of the toleranced feature (surface or line). (Exceptions according to ASME Y14.5: orientation tolerances for axes and median planes and positional tolerances are applied to the (straight) axes or (plane) median planes of mating features and do not limit the form deviations of the actual feature axes or median surfaces, see 21.1.3 and 21.1.6.) For example, related geometrical tolerances of surfaces also limit the form deviations of these surfaces (Fig. 3.3 centre and bottom, Fig. 3.5 bottom and Fig. 3.7 bottom).
在表3.3中列出了几何公差功能的几种可能,表明公差的可能类型取决于特征的类型。
当图纸已经标明实际截面线时(图20.7和20.9),另见20.2,图纸的指示“线”可以省略。进一步的可能性是一个球体的中心点位置公差或者一个截面内的中心点位置公差公差或同轴度(同心度与同轴度符号相同)公差。这些点也可以用来作为基准。在图1.3中将显示由高阶几何公差限制的偏差。相关的几何公差(与ISO1101和ASME Y14.5M相关的定向,定位公差)规定了包含所有受限特征点的区域。因此相关的几何公差也限制某些形状偏差。定位公差也限制了定向偏差和受限特征的形状偏差(面或线)。(根据ASME Y14.5:轴和中性面的定位公差以及配合特征的轴和中性面的位置公差和不限制实际特征轴和中性面的形状偏差见21.1.3和21.1.6除外)。例如,有关表面的几何公差也限制这些表面的形状偏差(图3.3中和下,图3.5下和图3.7下)。
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-11-4 22:14:09 | 只看该作者
Related geometrical tolerances of section lines limit the form deviations of the section lines but not the form deviations of the surface (in the other direction) (Fig. 3.5 top
and Fig. 3.7 top). Related geometrical tolerances of axes or median faces limit the form deviations of the axes or median faces, but not of the pertinent surfaces (Fig. 3.3 top and Fig. 3.4). (According to ISO 1101 for all geometrical tolerances and according to ASME Y14.5M for all tolerances with the exception of positional tolerances and orientation tolerances, it is assumed that actual axes and actual median faces of workpieces are subject to form deviations (from the geometrical ideal shape) (see also 3.5).)
Locational tolerances (e.g. positional tolerances) limit the location and also the orientation and form of the toleranced feature (e.g. axis, planar surface) (Fig. 3.12, see
also 8 and 18.10).The indication of form tolerances is not necessary when the related geometrical tolerance already limits the form deviations to a sufficient extent.
According to the former East European Standards (former Comecon Standards), form deviations are not limited by related geometrical tolerances (see 21.4).
The draft standard DIN 32 880 will be substituted by a future ISO Standard on GD&T.3.3 Tolerance zone
3.3.1 Form of the tolerance zone
Depending on the toleranced characteristic and depending on the drawing indication the tolerance zone is one of the following:
● area within a circle (Fig. 3.13);
● area between two concentric circles (Fig. 3.14);
● area between two equidistant lines or between two parallel straight lines (Fig. 3.15);
● space within a sphere (Fig. 3.16);
● space within a cylinder (Figs 3.17 and 3.20);
截面线的相关几何公差限制该线的形状偏差,但不是表面的形状偏差(在其它方向)(图3.5上
和图3.7上)。轴或中性面的相关几何公差限制了轴或中性面的形状偏差,但不相关的表面(图3.3上和图3.4)。(根据ISO1101的所有几何公差和根据ASME Y14.5M的所有公差。除了定位和定向公差,其假设工件的实际轴和中性面受限于形状偏差(相对于几何理想形状)(另见3.5))定位公差(如位置公差)限制的位置,也限制了特征的方向与形状(例如轴,平面)(图3.12,还有8和18.10)。在相关几何公差已经对形状偏差限制到足够的程度,则标明形状公差就没有必要了。根据原东欧洲标准(原Comecon标准),形状偏差不受限于相关(见21.4)的几何公差。
关于几何公差方面DIN 32 880标准草案将由未来的ISO标准取代。
3.3.1公差带的形状
根据受限特性和图纸上的标注,公差带为下列之一:
●圆形区域(图3.13);
●两个同心圆间的区域(图3.14);
●两个等距线或两个平行(图3.15)直线间的区域;
●球形范围内(图3.16);
●圆柱形的空间内(图3.17和3.20);(图片3.13中两个B基准中有一个为基准A)第42页
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35#
发表于 2010-11-5 16:54:50 | 只看该作者
Alex,好样的!
虽然我没时间仔细看,但我知道你用心去做了
No  pains, No  gains. Fighting........ 别人笑我忒疯癫,我笑别人看不穿;不见五陵豪杰墓,无花无酒锄做田。
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-11-5 20:44:30 | 只看该作者
引用第34楼luyanlin于2010-11-05 16:54发表的  :
Alex,好样的!
虽然我没时间仔细看,但我知道你用心去做了
谢谢你的理解,我不是英语专业出身,作为个学理科的只能说希望勤能补拙吧,还有就是我也希望能得到大家的指导。这样我也能进步得更快!
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发表于 2010-11-5 21:01:42 | 只看该作者
美标和中国标准一样吗
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-11-6 20:36:00 | 只看该作者
引用第36楼12qq12于2010-11-05 21:01发表的  :
美标和中国标准一样吗
美标为ASME Y14.5,中国的国标就是采用的ISO1101标准。
但是对于GD&T还是美标说的清楚且详细。(实话实说而已,中国的东西理论太强而且又是抄的欧标所以导致现在市面的大部分书籍都是简单的介绍没有用简单易懂的语言描述抽象的概念)
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发表于 2010-11-6 21:42:41 | 只看该作者
引用第8楼alex-li于2010-10-23 14:52发表的  :
2.1.2 Process Driven Design
A process driven design establishes the dimensional tolerances that are placed on a drawing based
entirely on the capability of the manufacturing process, not on the requirements of the fit and function
between mating parts. When the manufactured parts are inspected and meet the tolerance requirements
of the drawings, they are accepted as good parts. However, they may or may not assemble properly. This
.......

这第一段正文我的理解就跟您不一样啊……换我翻译的话:

2.1.2 工艺决定的设计

由工艺决定的设计,设计出的图纸上的尺寸的公差完全基于制造工艺的能力,而不是装配或相互配合零件的功能。当制造的产品经测量符合图纸公差要求,它们就作为合格产品被接受。但是,它们有可能可以被良好的装配,也有可能不行。这种情况的发生源于公差设定基于制造能力而不是设计的装配或配合功能。这种方式发生的组织,往往整个工程里设计要求受限于制造能力。


=====================
我理解的,这段是说受制造工艺能力局限,设计所采用的公差无法满足功能需求,只是按照制造所能达到的标准建立,这种情况会导致合格产品不能用。
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-11-7 00:05:02 | 只看该作者
引用第38楼qiucz于2010-11-06 21:42发表的  :


这第一段正文我的理解就跟您不一样啊……换我翻译的话:

2.1.2 工艺决定的设计
.......
谢谢你的指点,我基本同意你的观点。这是我更改好的译文。你看怎么样?
工艺驱动设计是指设置在图纸上的尺寸公差完全基于制造工艺能力,而不是部件间装配和功能的要求。只要当被检测的产品满足图纸的公差要求时,他们被作为好的产品而接受。然而,他们可能会很好地组装在一起,也可能不会。发生这种情况的原因是检验程序只能用于验证制造过程的公差要求,而不是装配部件间的功能和设计配合要求。这方法常常在制造“规定”工程设计要求的组织中使用。
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41#
发表于 2010-11-7 09:43:51 | 只看该作者
[quote]引用第32楼alex-li于2010-11-04 21:53发表的  :
首先回答楼上的问题:是我用软件把PDF中的文字提取出来的。谢谢关心!
楼主说的这个软件能介绍一下吗?我试了好多PDF转换软件都不好用。
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-11-7 11:12:50 | 只看该作者
引用第40楼eric_wxl于2010-11-07 09:43发表的  :
[quote]引用第32楼alex-li于2010-11-04 21:53发表的  :
首先回答楼上的问题:是我用软件把PDF中的文字提取出来的。谢谢关心!
楼主说的这个软件能介绍一下吗?我试了好多PDF转换软件都不好用。
Acrobat 6.0 professional 版本。不过不知道是否所有的PDF文件都可以。没试过!
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-11-8 18:52:08 | 只看该作者
Applying Datum and Feature Tolerance Modifiers to Product Designs
应用在产品设计中的基准和特征公差修正符
Material condition modifiers, (M) Maximum Material Condition, (L) Least Material Condition, and (S) Regardless of Feature Size are used to define how geometric feature tolerances interact with feature sizes in product specifications. There are physical relationships among mating parts that reveal which modifier should be selected and there are practical reasons that drive alternate choices of modifier selection. This paper explains common drivers for modifier selection, how modified tolerances are evaluated and promote a functional strategy for modifier selection.
在产品说明中,为了定义几何特征公差与特征尺寸间的相互作用,我们使用实体状态修正符, 最大实体状态,最小实体状态,尺寸特征无关等定义.在配合部件间存在固有的关联, 其揭示了如何选择修正符以及存在驱动选择修正符的现实原因.本文解释了修正符选择的一般原因, 如何评价修正后的公差和推动修正符选择的功能性原则.
How do Tolerance Modifiers work?
公差修正符是如何作用的?
Geometric tolerances constrain the boundaries that a surface, axis, center plane or point of a feature may occupy and the modifiers (M), (L), & (S) define how the size of the feature can contribute additional tolerance. For example, if a set of fastener clearance holes on one part mate with threaded bolts and tapped holes on another part, a clearance hole at its maximum size may be permitted to deviate more from its specified location while providing clearance to the threaded fastener. Likewise a hole that is at its minimum size will provide no additional clearance to the relationship. The least
material condition modifier (L) does exactly the opposite. For example, an oil passage hole that mates with a gasket and another passage on a mating part may be permitted to deviate more from its specified location if it is at its smallest size without violating the gasket edge boundaries. A hole at its largest size would therefore be permitted no additional location tolerance. Finally the regardless of feature size modifier (S) denies the application of additional tolerance due to feature size.
几何公差约束一个表面,轴,中心平面或特征点可能占用的边界和修正符(M)(L)&(S)定义了特征尺寸如何提供更多的公差。例如,一个零件上的一组光孔与另一个带螺纹的螺栓和螺纹孔相配合,处在最大尺寸的通孔,给螺纹紧固件提供间隙的同时, 相对其指定位置可以偏离更多。同样地,一个处在其最小尺寸的孔将不提供任何额外的间隙。最小的实体条件修正符(L)正好完全相反。例如,一个与垫圈配合的油路孔和另一个零件上的孔配合时,如果其处在最小且不违反垫片边缘界限的尺寸时,则可能会偏离其指定的位置更多。处在最大尺寸的孔,因此将没有额外的位置公差。最后,尺寸无关修正符(S)否认由于特征尺寸变化导致的额外公差的应用。
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44#
发表于 2010-11-9 15:55:56 | 只看该作者
看来我要向楼主学习了!
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-11-10 23:07:18 | 只看该作者
How are they chosen? 如何选择?
The designer must question, "How does size affect the functional relationship between features?" Is the relationship one of static assembly that will suffer no functional degradation if bonus tolerances as a result of feature size are applied or, is the relationship one in which the functional relationship is devalued as the deviation from ideal increases? The answer to that question provides most of the justification for a selection of the appropriate modifier but what if the relationship is more complicated?
设计者必须问自己:”尺寸如何影响特征间的功能配合关系?” 如果作为特征尺寸结果的盈余公差得到应用,静态装配之间的关系是否会导致功能恶化或者当相对于理论值的偏差增大时,这种功能关系是否会被低估?对于选择合适的修正符,这些问题的答案提供大多数的理由,如果关系较为复杂那又是什么呢?
For example consider a hub and clutch cylinder assembly with a small OD on the hub and a larger ID on the cylinder that a ring shaped piston with seals fits into. The outer and inner bores of the hub and cylinder assembly are toleranced one to the other with a (M) modifier that permits additional position allowance as the diameters depart from their MMC size. The ring shaped piston is toleranced similarly. Hard gauges for both reflect the envelope of the mating part at its worst permissible condition or "virtual condition." The design permits the piston to enter the hub and cylinder at its virtual condition so it would seem that the application of the (M) modifier is appropriate but are there other considerations? Since there are seals on both diameters of the piston the additional allowance for location degrades the seal engagements and permits greater or lesser pinch. Should a larger ID on the hub and cylinder assembly be permitted more position tolerance when it gets bigger?  Is this a case where the function is devalued as the deviation from ideal increases? If so,should the location tolerance of the diameters on the piston and cylinder assembly bores be declared (S)? Based purely on functional considerations which Would you choose?
例如,当考虑一个轴和圆柱形轮毂配合时,外径小的轴上与一个带有密封环的大内径环形圆柱配合时。轴的外部和内部圆孔和圆柱小总成相对彼此用了M修正符,即当直径偏离它们最大实体尺寸时,允许额外的位置补偿。圆环形活塞以类似方法约束。对于这两个零件的硬规反映了处在最差允许条件下的配合包络或“虚拟状态”。设计允许活塞进入处在虚拟状态状态下的轴和圆柱体因此这看起来M修正符的应用是合适的。但是是否还应该考虑其它情况呢?因为在活塞的两端直径上都有密封环,位置的额外补偿损害了密封环的装配和导致了或大或小的压力。当他们尺寸变大时,轴上的大内径和圆柱的装配应该允许得到更多的位置偏差么?这是那个当相对于理论值的偏离增到时功能被低估的例子么?如果是这样,如果对活塞和汽缸总成孔上的直径位置公差应该标注S么?纯粹基于功能考虑你会选择哪?(HUB和Cluth 我感觉翻译的不对)
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-11-11 23:20:56 | 只看该作者
Often single features have multiple functional relationships to other features in the design.Take for instance a pair of dowel pins pressed into one assembly and a pair of dowel holes in another assembly. The function of which is to make other features on the assemblies coaxial. There is a relationship of one pin to the other and one hole to the other that would suggest a static assembly. To assemble the pins must enter the holes when both sets are at their virtual condition and as they approach their LMC size there is additional tolerance for location permitted.There is also a relationship between the set of dowels and the axis established by features on either side of the assembly. .The location of the set of dowel pins or holes relative to the other features that establish the axis of the separate components is one that devalues the functional relationship as the deviation increases. Clearly there are multiple considerations in selecting the tolerance modifiers that relate to the function of the dowels. .If the spread between the dowel pins and holes combined with the allowances for feature sizes is a refinement of the tolerance permitted from the axis ,then both specifications make sense, the spread at (M) and the locations related to the axis at (S). However if the specification for the spread is not a refinement of the virtual condition derived from separate control then it is inappropriate.
在设计中一个特征常常与另一个特征存在多种功能关系.例如插入一个总成内的一对销钉和另一个总成上的一对销钉孔.它们的作用是使总成中其它的特征同轴.这样一来就在销钉之间和孔之间存在一种稳定的装配关系.当他们处于实效状态且接近最小实体状态时, 为了保证销钉一定能与孔装配到一起, 对于位置公差就存在额外的补偿.在每侧总成上特征轴和销钉之间也存在一种关系.当偏差增加时,降低功能关系的一个因素就是相对于其它特征建立单独部件基准轴的销钉或孔的位置.很显然在选择与销钉功能相关的公差修正符时,存在多种考虑. 如果把相对尺寸特征的盈余公差与定位销和孔之间的距离变化相整合就是一个从轴出得到的允许公差的改进,那么这两个规则即在最大实体状态的扩展和处在与尺寸无关状态下但与轴有关的位置都是有意义的。但是如果扩展的规范不是对源于单独控制的失效状态的提高,则其就是不恰当的。

本段很难理解,总的感觉,翻译的不通顺。求指教
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发表于 2010-11-13 07:48:40 | 只看该作者
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-11-16 20:50:55 | 只看该作者
Are there practical reasons to make non-functional choices?
The most common rationale to substitute a (M) where a (S) would be functionally appropriate is to enable hard gauging, often referred to as "functional gauging."  The substitution is practical because hard gauges, also known as "go, no-go gauges," are simple to use in production and they are generally less expensive than variables measurement devices. The prerequisite for the selection is that the tolerance is applied to a "feature of size" and since most specifications apply to "features of size" the modifier is commonly applied to tolerances by default without a critical analysis of the functional relationships.
The (L) modifier is shunned from application for the opposite reason that the (M) modifier is preferred. A traditional hard gauge cannot measure a feature that is permitted additional tolerance as it approaches its maximum material condition. To illustrate a typical gauge driven substitutions of functional modifiers consider a valve body separator plate. It is a thin steel plate that has numerous holes and slots in it and it is sandwiched between two valve body surfaces. The valve body surfaces look like a maze of fluid channels. The tops of the channel walls form the surface and are commonly referred to as "worm trails." The separator plate has mating gaskets on both sides that prevent leakage from one channel to another and they have the same pattern of holes and slots to permit fluid flow from a channel on one side through the plate to a channel on the other side. It is the hydraulic equivalent of two-sided electronic circuit board. Some of the holes in the plate are there to permit bolts to pass thru and clamp one body to another. All of the holes and slots in the separator plate are pierced simultaneously in a stamping press and all of them are "features of size." The preferred method of inspection is a hard-gauge that looks strikingly similar to the pierce die. The only difference is the size of the pins corresponding with the punch elements. On the gauge the pins are set to the virtual condition of each hole and slot. Therefore the pin size is the minimum hole size minus the amount of position tolerance given in the feature control frame. The product specification has (M) applied to all of the hole and slot position tolerances so the "functional" hard gauge matches the drawing and mirrors the manufacturing process. But does the specification and subsequent gauge reflect the functional relationship between features?   
采用非功能性的选择是否有实际的原因?
为了能使用硬量规最常见的基本原理是在功能适合(S)的地方用(M)来代替,这通常被称为“功能量具”。这种置换很实用的,因为硬量规,也被称为“Go,NO-GO,”简单易用,在生产中他们一般比较容易使用并且它们一般比可变测量设备便宜。这种选择的前提是公差是适用于“尺寸特征”由于大多数规范适用于“特征尺寸”。通常修正符适用于在默认情况下没有关键的功能关系分析公差。
(L)修正符避免应用(M)修正符首选的相反原因。传统硬量规无法衡量一个当它接近最大实体状态,允许产生额外公差的特征。为了说明一个功能修正符替代品驱动的替换典型的测量量规,我们以阀体过滤板为例。这是一个薄钢板,其上布有无数的孔和槽,且夹在两个阀体表面的中间。阀体表面看起来像流体通道迷宫。通道墙壁的顶部形成表面,通常被称为“虫道”该隔板两侧有垫片与之配合,防止从一侧与另一侧之间的泄漏,他们有相同样式的孔和槽,允许流体通过这个隔离板从一侧通过平板通道流动到另一边通道。这是液压相等的双面电子线路板。在板上的一些孔,允许有螺栓通过与另一侧的物体夹紧。在冲裁过冲中,隔离板上所有孔和槽都同时被刺穿,全部是“大小功能。切它们都是“特征尺寸”。首选的检查方法是使用看起来与打孔模惊人地相似的硬量规。唯一的区别是与该冲头元素相对应引脚的大小。量规上Pin被设置为每个孔和槽的虚拟状态。因此,PIN的大小是最小孔的尺寸减去的功能控制框规定的位置公差值。产品规定在所有孔和槽位置公差上应用(M)修正符,因此功能硬量规符合图纸并反映制造工艺。但此规则和后来的量规反映了特征间的关系吗?
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发表于 2010-11-17 19:31:15 | 只看该作者
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-11-20 16:02:17 | 只看该作者
Some of the holes are there to permit fasteners thru and the rest of them enable fluid passage. For those that are fastener clearance holes the pins in the gauge represent the virtual condition of the bolts that mate with threaded holes that are toleranced for position in one body and corresponding clearance holes toleranced for position in the other body. The (M) applied to these holes is consistent with the function in that the clearance to the fastener is maintained as a larger hole deviates more from its true position. The bonus tolerance permitted is equivalent to the difference between the holes actual and MMC size.
其中一些孔允许通过紧固件,其它的用做流体通道.对于那些紧固件间隙孔, 检具上的柱子代表了与螺纹孔配合的螺栓虚拟状态与另一个物体上的与由位置公差控制的间隙孔相关.这些孔上应用的M与间隙的功能是一致的, 即当存在更大的孔时可以相对正确位置偏离更多.允许的奖励公差等于孔的实际尺寸与处在最大实体状态下尺寸的差值.
The fluid passage holes and slots however do not function the same as the fastener holes. An outer boundary represented by an outline of a circle or slot would define the limit that the edge of the hole or slot could not exceed without encroaching on the channel walls or gasket edges. Accordingly a smaller hole would have more room to move than a bigger hole. That functional relationship is consistent with the (L) modifier but, as stated earlier, "A traditional hard gauge cannot measure a feature that is permitted additional tolerance as it approaches its maximum material condition." A simple overlay with the virtual condition outlines of the hole and slot boundaries that looks strikingly similar to the gasket might better represent a "functional gauge" for the fluid passages on the separator plate.
但是流体通道孔和长条孔与紧固件孔的功能不一样.由圆或长条孔的外部轮廓代表的外部边界会定义圆或长条孔边界不可超越的范围且不可损害通道的壁厚或密封圈的边.因此越小直径的孔就会比大直径的孔有更多的移动空间.这个功能关系与L修正符相符但是就如前面提到的”传统的硬检具不能检测一个允许当它接近最大实体状态时,存在额外公差的特征.” 与虚拟条件的简单叠加概述了孔和槽的界限,看起来极为相似的垫片可能更好地代表有关隔板的流体通道“功能规范”。
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发表于 2010-11-22 10:47:36 | 只看该作者
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go,no go: 通止
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发表于 2010-11-24 08:17:05 | 只看该作者
引用第52楼cadit于2010-11-24 00:17发表的  :
go,no go: 通止
to be , not to be 存亡(要么生存,要么死亡)
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-11-27 18:15:32 | 只看该作者
The (S) modifier is sometimes substituted as a non-functional choice for a "feature of size" that has a complex form or definition. Typically a portion of the feature contour is identified as the focus for measurement of form, location or orientation. Splines, threads, contour profiles etc… are examples of these forms. Again when the functional considerations are examined and the benefit or detriment of applying the tolerance attributable to size can be determined then the proper modifier can be selected.
Threads are a special case since they are so prolific in product designs. It is true that a thread is a feature of size but it is difficult to apply the bonus attributable to thread size to a location tolerance. Consequently few, if any, inspection procedures actually check the location of the thread at (M). Instead one of three different inspections for location is likely to occur for an internal thread. 在产品设计中被频繁使用的螺纹是一个特殊的例子.螺纹是尺寸特征,但是很难应用由位置公差尺寸变化引起的盈余尺寸.如果实际中任何检测过程检测处在M时的螺纹位置度,其结果会更少.相反对于内螺纹会存在如下三个不同位置检测方法:
1. An expanding thread device with a coaxial reference pin is measured for location. (This procedure models the thread at (S) plus it permits the evaluation of a projected tolerance zone (P) for a specified distance above the surface, typically the thickness of the mating part).用于测量位置带有同轴参考柱子的可膨胀螺纹设备.(本工艺构件处在S时的螺纹+其允许的在表面上指定距离内投影区域的公差,典型的是配合零件的厚度)
2. The minor diameter of the thread is measured for location (S). (The measurement is accomplished by inserting a slip-fit pin or by directly probing the minor diameter).
处在S状态下的螺纹小径位置测量.(通过插入slip-fit pin或直接探测小径来测量)
3. The minor diameter of the thread is measured for location (M). (A pin size equal to the MMC size of the minor diameter minus the location tolerance for the thread is inserted into the minor diameter at its basic location coordinates). 在M状态下的螺纹小径位置测量.(圆柱尺寸等于小径最大实体状态尺寸减去处在理论位置下且插入小径螺纹的位置公差)
Inspecting with expandable thread inserts is time consuming so it is usually an infrequent procedure. The size of the thread is commonly checked using a go, no-go thread gage. Most of the specifications declare (M) for the thread location tolerance because it is a "feature of size" but typically the minor diameter is measured for location. For quality control purposes it may be more beneficial to measure the size and location of the rolled or drilled minor diameter to generate variables data and monitor limits. What benefit is a hard gage that measures the thread location using the minor diameter if the minor diameter is not also monitored for size?用可膨胀螺纹插入件检测是十分耗时的,因此在它很少被采用.通常使用go, no-go 螺纹规检测螺纹的尺寸.大多数规范给螺纹位置公差分配M,是由于其是特征尺寸特别是小径位置的公差的测量.从质量控制角度讲检测滚压或钻得的小径尺寸和位置以便得到可变的数据和控制极限会更有利. 如果小径不检测尺寸,那么利用通过小径测得螺纹位置的硬量规会有什么好处呢?
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-11-27 18:16:11 | 只看该作者
引用第52楼cadit于2010-11-24 00:17发表的  :
go,no go: 通止
谢谢
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-11-29 21:26:23 | 只看该作者
How do Datum modifiers work and how are they chosen? 基准修正符如何作用和如何选择它们?
The modifiers (M), (L), or (S) when applied to datum features either permit or deny a shift and/or rotation of the origin of coordinate measurements equal to the departure of the datum feature's size from its material condition limit declared. If the (S) modifier is specified hence regardless of feature size "no shift is permitted." If (M) is specified no shift is permitted when the feature is at its maximum material condition and the full datum feature size tolerance is available for coordinate origin shift when it is at its least material condition. Naturally (L) functions opposite that of (M).
当基准特征应用修正符M,L,S时,就会或者允许或者无视测量坐标原点的偏移和/或旋转,其数值等于基准特征尺寸偏离于其指明的材料状态限制的多少.如果指定S, 就是尺寸无关即”不允许有偏移”, 如果指定M时, 当特征处在最大实体状态时不允许有偏移则当处于最小实体状态时全部基准特征尺寸公差都可相对于坐标原点偏移.自然地L的功能与M相反.
To choose the correct modifier one needs to examine how datum feature size contributes to the relaxation of static assembly constraints or how datum feature size contributes to a devaluation of functional relationships when the origin is permitted to move. The justification is very similar to the justification for feature tolerance modifiers.  
为了选择正确的修正符,当原点允许移动时,其需要检测基准特征尺寸怎样贡献静态装配限制的放松状况或者基准特征尺寸怎样贡献功能关系间的偏差.这种判断与尺寸公差修正符的判断是类似的.
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-11-30 21:10:01 | 只看该作者
How are datum feature bonus tolerances typically applied in gauging? 在检测中基准特征的盈余公差是如何应用的?
Attribute or "hard gauges," if they are designed to verify conformance of all features simultaneously that "declare the same datum features in the same order with the same datum and tolerance modifiers" physically apply the datum feature bonus tolerance properly. Bonus tolerances from datum features are applied simultaneously to all related features because the datum shift is accomplished physically to "fit" the part on the gauge. That said, many of the hard gauges are designed to verify a collection of functionally related features, which may or may not include every identically referenced feature specification. The "Principle of simultaneity" in the dimensioning and tolerancing standard establishes the constraint but it can however, be revoked if the individual features have the words "SEPARATE REQUIREMENT" attached to the feature control frame.
       属性或硬检具,如果对于所有注明有相同的顺序,具有相同的公差修正符号的相同基准特征他们用于同时验证特征的一致性,按照规律响应地应用基准特征盈余公差.源于基准特征的盈余公差会同时应用到所有相关的特征上, 由于实际上把零件与检具相配合时就, 产生了基准偏移.那也就是说许多硬检具是用于验证相关特征的综合作用, 是否会包含每个同样地参考特征要求.尺寸公差标准内的同时性要求建立了限制但是如果单个特征带有与公差控制框相连的”单独要求”时, 它就不起作用了.
Most variables data gauging devices are designed to restrict movement of datum features to stabilize the measurement of related features. Consequently the "bonus tolerance" attributable to datum feature size is not considered. "Bonus tolerances" for both features and datums are typically ignored with simple variables data gauging devices. Furthermore, the data gathered from these devices is commonly used to monitor and control processes statistically and, as stated earlier, the traditional calculations of the indices "Ppk, Cpk" that reflect conformance to specification do not accommodate a variable tolerances.
大部分可变数据检测设备用于限制基准特征的移动以便固定相关特征的测量.所以就不需要考虑由基准特征尺寸产生的盈余公差.对特征和基准的盈余公差会单一可变数据检测设备.而且从这些设备采集到的数据通常用于监控和统计控制工艺.如前面提到的如包括Ppk,Cpk的传统计算反映符合不适应可变公差的规范
The only variables data gaging devices that do address "bonus tolerances" are software driven devices. These include, coordinate measuring machines, visual comparators and other tools with integrated data analysis. The software typically includes options to enable or disable the application of "bonus tolerances" in the analysis. While most of the software routines correctly apply the individual feature "bonus tolerance" to the feature itself, the "bonus tolerance" derived from the datum feature is commonly applied independently rather than collectively to all related features. Applying the datum feature bonus tolerance correctly would require an iterative approach to shift the origin of measurement after acquiring the measured results from all related features. Since the measurement process is generally accomplished and reported sequentially few, if any programmers-operators apply datum feature "bonus tolerances" correctly. When it is applied independently to individual features it is worse than not applying it at all because it permits tolerance increases beyond the specification. As with the simple variables data gauging devices the traditional statistical evaluations of "Ppk, Cpk" demand a constant tolerance so even if the results from properly applied bonus tolerances demonstrate that the results are within specification, the statistical evaluation will strip-away bonus tolerances and yield different results.
只有提供盈余公差的可变数据检测设备是有软件驱动的.这些包括, CMM, 可视对比器和其它的具有整合数据分析的工具.在分析中软件包括是否应用盈余公差的选项.大多数软件路径能正确给特征自己应用单独特征的盈余公差, 从基准特征中得到的盈余公差是分别应用到所有的相关特征而不是同时.在从所有相关特征取得测量结果后, 正确应用的基准特征盈余公差会需要一个反复的过程去移动测量原点.由于测量工艺一般很少是按顺序完成并报告, 如果有程序员正确地应用数据功能“盈余公差”。当它被单独应用到独立的特征时,比不应用到所有的特征更差,因为它允许公差超出规定。与简单可变数据测量设备相比,“Ppk,Cpk”的传统统计评估需要一个固定的公差,这样即使从应用适当的盈余公差中得到的结果表明该结果符合规范,统计评价将去处盈余公差,产生不同的结果。
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-12-16 18:56:56 | 只看该作者
How does the application "bonus tolerance" derived from datum features differ from the application of "bonus tolerance" from other features? 源于基准特征的盈余公差的应用如何不同与源于其它特征的盈余公差?
The "bonus tolerance" derived from an individual feature applies to that feature only but the "bonus tolerance" derived from a datum feature applies collectively or simultaneously to all features that are identically related to it. Every feature control specification on the drawing that declares the same datum features in the same order with the same datum and tolerance modifiers may benefit from a datum shift. The shift is limited by the material condition constraints and the shift and/or rotation must be applied simultaneously to all of the features in a singular coordinate translation. Therefore some of the features may benefit from the shift while others may suffer from it. If two features deviate from their basic locations in opposite directions relative to the datum then any shift of the datum will benefit one and frustrate the other.
源于个体特征的盈余公差仅仅应用与特征,但是源于基准特征的盈余公差会共同地或同时地应用于所有与其相关的特征.图纸上每个特征控制要求当其具有相同的, 顺序相同, 相同的公差修正符的基准时, 都可从基准偏移中得到好处.偏移受实体状态规定限制且在一次单独坐标移动里偏移或旋转必须同时应用到所有的特征.因此特征中的一些可能从偏移中得到益处, 另一些会吃亏.如果两个特征相对与基准朝相反的方向偏离于它们的理论位置, 则基准的任何偏转就会对一个有利另一个有害.
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-12-16 18:57:25 | 只看该作者
How are datum feature bonus tolerances typically applied in gauging? 在检测中基准特征的盈余公差是如何应用的?
Attribute or "hard gauges," if they are designed to verify conformance of all features simultaneously that "declare the same datum features in the same order with the same datum and tolerance modifiers" physically apply the datum feature bonus tolerance properly. Bonus tolerances from datum features are applied simultaneously to all related features because the datum shift is accomplished physically to "fit" the part on the gauge. That said, many of the hard gauges are designed to verify a collection of functionally related features, which may or may not include every identically referenced feature specification. The "Principle of simultaneity" in the dimensioning and tolerancing standard establishes the constraint but it can however, be revoked if the individual features have the words "SEPARATE REQUIREMENT" attached to the feature control frame.
       属性或硬检具,如果对于所有注明有相同的顺序,具有相同的公差修正符号的相同基准特征他们用于同时验证特征的一致性,按照规律响应地应用基准特征盈余公差.源于基准特征的盈余公差会同时应用到所有相关的特征上, 由于实际上把零件与检具相配合时就, 产生了基准偏移.那也就是说许多硬检具是用于验证相关特征的综合作用, 是否会包含每个同样地参考特征要求.尺寸公差标准内的同时性要求建立了限制但是如果单个特征带有与公差控制框相连的”单独要求”时, 它就不起作用了.
Most variables data gauging devices are designed to restrict movement of datum features to stabilize the measurement of related features. Consequently the "bonus tolerance" attributable to datum feature size is not considered. "Bonus tolerances" for both features and datums are typically ignored with simple variables data gauging devices. Furthermore, the data gathered from these devices is commonly used to monitor and control processes statistically and, as stated earlier, the traditional calculations of the indices "Ppk, Cpk" that reflect conformance to specification do not accommodate a variable tolerances.
大部分可变数据检测设备用于限制基准特征的移动以便固定相关特征的测量.所以就不需要考虑由基准特征尺寸产生的盈余公差.对特征和基准的盈余公差会单一可变数据检测设备.而且从这些设备采集到的数据通常用于监控和统计控制工艺.如前面提到的如包括Ppk,Cpk的传统计算反映符合不适应可变公差的规范
The only variables data gaging devices that do address "bonus tolerances" are software driven devices. These include, coordinate measuring machines, visual comparators and other tools with integrated data analysis. The software typically includes options to enable or disable the application of "bonus tolerances" in the analysis. While most of the software routines correctly apply the individual feature "bonus tolerance" to the feature itself, the "bonus tolerance" derived from the datum feature is commonly applied independently rather than collectively to all related features. Applying the datum feature bonus tolerance correctly would require an iterative approach to shift the origin of measurement after acquiring the measured results from all related features. Since the measurement process is generally accomplished and reported sequentially few, if any programmers-operators apply datum feature "bonus tolerances" correctly. When it is applied independently to individual features it is worse than not applying it at all because it permits tolerance increases beyond the specification. As with the simple variables data gauging devices the traditional statistical evaluations of "Ppk, Cpk" demand a constant tolerance so even if the results from properly applied bonus tolerances demonstrate that the results are within specification, the statistical evaluation will strip-away bonus tolerances and yield different results.
只有提供盈余公差的可变数据检测设备是有软件驱动的.这些包括, CMM, 可视对比器和其它的具有整合数据分析的工具.在分析中软件包括是否应用盈余公差的选项.大多数软件路径能正确给特征自己应用单独特征的盈余公差, 从基准特征中得到的盈余公差是分别应用到所有的相关特征而不是同时.在从所有相关特征取得测量结果后, 正确应用的基准特征盈余公差会需要一个反复的过程去移动测量原点.由于测量工艺一般很少是按顺序完成并报告, 如果有程序员正确地应用数据功能“盈余公差”。当它被单独应用到独立的特征时,比不应用到所有的特征更差,因为它允许公差超出规定。与简单可变数据测量设备相比,“Ppk,Cpk”的传统统计评估需要一个固定的公差,这样即使从应用适当的盈余公差中得到的结果表明该结果符合规范,统计评价将去处盈余公差,产生不同的结果。
Should the manufacturing process or gauging constraints drive the selection of the Datum and Feature Tolerance Modifiers?  No! Product designs should describe feature tolerances according to their constraints for fit and function so that the product will perform as intended and ultimately provide value to the customer. Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing provides the tool to convey those boundaries and constraints and if depicted properly will describe only fit and function not manufacturing or gauging constraints. When the design is detailed as such manufacturers are free to replicate best practices without triggering design changes. They have the liberty to employ innovative and reliable processes to manufacture products.  When the design codifies a particular manufacturing or gauging strategy it frustrates alternative strategies and often compromises the functional definition in favor of concessions to resident assumptions.
生产工艺或测量限制应该规定基准和特征公差修正符的选择么?不!产品设计应该根据配合和功能的限制来描述特征公差,以便产品按照预想方案工作,最终给客户提供价值.GD&T提供一个传达边界和约束的工具,如果合适的描述仅仅是描述了配合和功能而不是制造和检测限制.当设计制定详细的生产或检测方案,那么它就会破坏了其它可能的选择并且常常
Recent breakthroughs in statistical methods to apply bonus tolerances to process capability evaluations raise new issues. While their discovery may be beneficial for manufacturing because it permits them to use more of the specified tolerance to demonstrate process capability, it may also be a liability to the customer if the datum and tolerance modifiers were chosen for nonfunctional purposes. Since the (M) modifier is preferred to enable "hard gauging" or chosen because the tolerance pertains to a "feature of size," as stated earlier, it is likely that some specifications may have nonfunctional modifiers. Since most statistical evaluations ignore the bonus, manufacturing is penalized statistically in reporting capability evaluations. If the additional tolerance is now applied and here-to-fore incapable or marginal process performances are validated then the customer is ultimately affected.
统计方法上,应用到工艺能力评估上的盈余公差的方法取得的突破带来了新的问题.然而他们的发现可能对生产带来益处, 因为它对于表现工艺能力时可以使用更多的规定公差.对于非功能性的目的是否采用基准和公差修正符客户也有责任.由于M修正符更倾向或选择硬检具, 因为公差适合尺寸特征, 如前面所描述一些规定可能具有非功能性的修正符, 由于大多数统计评估忽略盈余, 在报告能力评估时, 生产会在统计学上受到惩罚.如果现在应用额外的公差并且接受了无用的或边界工艺性能那么客户最终会受到影响.
How should datum and feature tolerance modifiers (M), (L), & (S) be applied to product designs? Datum and feature tolerance modifier designations greatly influence how the boundaries of feature tolerance are interpreted, how size contributes to geometric tolerances, and how gaging or measurement is performed. The product designer can choose the correct modifier by answering the simple question: "How does size affect the functional relationship between features?" If fit and function is the primary driver then the product can or will be evaluated according to its functional constraints ultimately benefiting the consumer. There are many competing justifications for choosing these modifiers but none are as important as function.
基准和特征公差修正符应该怎样应用到产品设计中呢?基准和特征公差修正符的指定极大地影响了如何解释特征公差边界, 如何对几何公差产生影响以及检具或测量的性能如何.通过回答以下问题, 产品设计者就能选择正确的修正符”尺寸是怎样影响特征间的功能关系?”如果配合和功能是主要驱动者,那么根据它的功能限制产品能或可以被评估极大地有益于客户. 对于选择这些修正符存在许多激烈的正当理由,但是没有什么比功能性更重要的了.
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发表于 2010-12-23 14:04:04 | 只看该作者
呵呵,楼主翻译了不少,祝贺你。
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